To Racketeer among Friends: Spatial Features of Criminal Collaboration in the American Mafia

The American Mafia is known as a violent network of criminals engaged in drug trafficking, violence, and illegal activities. We analyzed a spatial social network (SSN) of 680 Mafia members where connections represent `known associates’ found through a 1960s federal crime investigation by the U.S. Federal Bureau of Narcotics. Members are geolocated to a known home address, and span across 15 major U.S. cities, concentrated in New York City. We ask four different research questions related to family, power, and coordination strategies.

Q1: Do families tend to live in clusters or distributed locations?
Q2: Do criminal associates tend to live near one another and are nearby members likelier to be associates?
Q3: Are high-degree members found near their family centers, high-income areas, or near strategic physical features?
Q4: Does the network exhibit efficiency in geographic space?

The methods we used include:

Method (Research Question) Question
Cluster/Cluster Matrix (1) (new!) Do tight-knit networks cluster?
Network Density Hotspot (2) (new!) Are spatial neighbors connected?
Node Role GIS Analysis (3) Are high-degree nodes in special locations?
Route Factor Diagram (4) Are network-distant ties dispersed?
Network Flattening Ratio (4) Is the network spatially efficient?

Paper forthcoming in International Journal of Geographical Information Science, Special Issue on Spatial Social Networks.